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Primary School

Where children come first



At Aylesham Primary school we believe that all children can achieve and we empower our children with a ‘can do’ attitude, embracing our school value of resilience. We make lessons practical and aim for all pupils to enjoy and achieve in mathematics and become confident mathematicians. Consistency is key and all teachers build on children’s understanding of mathematics through a process of enquiry, reasoning and problem solving, inspiring their creativity. We also make use of a range of learning strategies, encouraging teamwork and boosting their independence. Number sense is vital and this is built on from the very beginning ensuring that all children can fly high in their learning. 


We follow the White Rose Maths Hub schemes of learning and the use of small steps support a mastery approach to teaching and learning and have been designed to support the aims and objectives of the National Curriculum. This year there is a particular focus on review and ensuring the children have all the skills they need before they move on.


When introduced to a new concept we use the Concrete-Pictorial-Abstract approach giving children the opportunity to build competency and the children are confident with using a range of manipulatives to support their learning.


Children can support their learning at home by the use of Mathletics and Times Tables Rockstars.


Our schemes of learning can be accessed here:

At Aylesham Primary School we follow the 2014 National Curriculum for Mathematics and the Kent Maths Programme of Study for Key Stage One and Two.




The national curriculum for mathematics aims to ensure that all pupils:


  • become fluent in the fundamentals of mathematics, including through varied and frequent practice with increasingly complex problems over time, so that pupils develop conceptual understanding and the ability to recall and apply knowledge rapidly and accurately.
  • reason mathematically by following a line of enquiry, conjecturing relationships and generalisations, and developing an argument, justification or proof using mathematical language
  • can solve problems by applying their mathematics to a variety of routine and non-routine problems with increasing sophistication, including breaking down problems into a series of simpler steps and persevering in seeking solutions.


The expectation is that the majority of pupils will move through the programmes of study at broadly the same pace. However, decisions about when to progress should always be based on the security of pupils’ understanding and their readiness to progress to the next stage. Pupils who grasp concepts rapidly should be challenged through being offered rich and sophisticated problems before any acceleration through new content. Those who are not sufficiently fluent with earlier material should consolidate their understanding, including through additional practice, before moving on.


Information and communication technology (ICT)

Calculators should not be used as a substitute for good written and mental arithmetic. They should therefore only be introduced near the end of key stage 2 to support pupils’ conceptual understanding and exploration of more complex number problems, if written and mental arithmetic are secure. In both primary and secondary schools, teachers should use their judgement about when ICT tools should be used.


Spoken Language

The national curriculum for mathematics reflects the importance of spoken language in pupils’ development across the whole curriculum – cognitively, socially and linguistically.  The quality and variety of language that pupils hear and speak are key factors in developing their mathematical vocabulary and presenting a mathematical justification, argument or proof. They must be assisted in making their thinking clear to themselves as well as others and teachers should ensure that pupils build secure foundations by using discussion to probe and remedy their misconceptions.


Attainment targets

By the end of each key stage, pupils are expected to know, apply and understand the matters, skills and processes specified in the relevant programme of study.


Key Stage 1 - Year 1 and 2                         

​The principal focus of mathematics teaching in key stage 1 is to ensure that pupils develop confidence and mental fluency with whole numbers, counting and place value. This should involve working with numerals, words and the four operations, including with practical resources [for example, concrete objects and measuring tools].


At this stage, pupils should develop their ability to recognise, describe, draw, compare and sort different shapes and use the related vocabulary. Teaching should also involve using a range of measures to describe and compare different quantities such as length, mass, capacity/volume, time and money.


By the end of year 2, pupils should know the number bonds to 20 and be precise in using and understanding place value. An emphasis on practice at this early stage will aid fluency.


Pupils should read and spell mathematical vocabulary, at a level consistent with their increasing word reading and spelling knowledge at key stage 1.


Lower Key Stage 2 - Year 3 and 4

​The principal focus of mathematics teaching in lower key stage 2 is to ensure that pupils become increasingly fluent with whole numbers and the four operations, including number facts and the concept of place value. This should ensure that pupils develop efficient written and mental methods and perform calculations accurately with increasingly large whole numbers.


At this stage, pupils should develop their ability to solve a range of problems, including with simple fractions and decimal place value. Teaching should also ensure that pupils draw with increasing accuracy and develop mathematical reasoning so they can analyse shapes and their properties, and confidently describe the relationships between them. It should ensure that they can use measuring instruments with accuracy and make connections between measure and number.


By the end of year 4, pupils should have memorised their multiplication tables up to and including the 12 multiplication table and show precision and fluency in their work.


Pupils should read and spell mathematical vocabulary correctly and confidently, using their growing word reading knowledge and their knowledge of spelling.


Upper Key Stage 2 - Years 5 and 6

​The principal focus of mathematics teaching in upper key stage 2 is to ensure that pupils extend their understanding of the number system and place value to include larger integers. This should develop the connections that pupils make between multiplication and division with fractions, decimals, percentages and ratio.


At this stage, pupils should develop their ability to solve a wider range of problems, including increasingly complex properties of numbers and arithmetic, and problems demanding efficient written and mental methods of calculation. With this foundation in arithmetic, pupils are introduced to the language of algebra as a means for solving a variety of problems. Teaching in geometry and measures should consolidate and extend knowledge developed in number. Teaching should also ensure that pupils classify shapes with increasingly complex geometric properties and that they learn the vocabulary they need to describe them.


By the end of year 6, pupils should be fluent in written methods for all four operations, including long multiplication and division, and in working with fractions, decimals and percentages.


Pupils should read, spell and pronounce mathematical vocabulary correctly.


Maths at Aylesham Primary


At Aylesham Primary School we aim to make a difference to all children's ability to calculate effectively.  We ensure children are confident to manipulate numbers and solve problems involving numbers in the real world contexts. Pupils are taught robust mental calculation approaches that promote efficient methods for solving problems.


A key way Maths is taught at Aylesham Primary School is through the use of Manipulatives.  Numicon is one of these that we have invested money into and that all staff are fully trained with the use of.  Numicon provides children with a visual image of a whole number, which promotes calculating with whole numbers and using number lines.


In Key Stage 1, children develop confidence and mental fluency with whole numbers and place value in all four operations.  Key Stage 2 builds on the methods taught in Key Stage 1, moving towards more formal methods of calculation.


Although the school actively promotes the methods within the appendices, teachers will use professional judgment both in deciding when to move a child onto a more formal method and the use of different methods to overcome barriers to learning.  Pupils also develop personalised approaches to calculation, and these are encouraged when they are efficient and accurate. However, the methods contained in this policy are the ones that are promoted as a core approach at Aylesham Primary School.